Tarique is the elder son of former President of Bangladesh Ziaur Rahman Bir Uttam, one of the key military leaders in the Bangladeshi War of Independence in 1971, and Khaleda Zia, former Prime Minister of Bangladesh. He spent most of his life in DhakaCantonment. When Tarique Rahman grew up to go to school, he was admitted to a school in Dhaka popularly known as Shaheen High School and College, primarily meant for the children of the Army personnel. Later he got admitted in Dhaka Residential Model College and attained the Secondary School Certificate (SSC). Later he studied in Adamjee Cantonment Public School & College and passed Higher Secondary Certificate (HSC) examinations with commanding results. In 1985 he admitted in Dhaka University as a student of International Relations, a subject of his choice. Tarique studied political thoughts of Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Hobbes, Locke, Roussou, Voltaire, Karl Marx and other exceptional thinkers. He concentrated more on socioeconomic and political subjects, including the in-depth study of gradual development of democracy and dynamics of economic liberalization.
Tarique graduated in a volatile situation at the height of the nationwide movement against the autocratic regime of Hussain Muhammad Ershad, which his mother Begum Khaleda Zia was leading.
Presently, Tarique attempt to earn Bar-at-Law Degree from a University College at London. Tarique is married to Zubaida Khan, the youngest daughter of Rear Admiral Mahbub Ali Khan, former Chief of Naval Staff of Bangladesh Navy. Zubaida Rahman is a physician worked in the government. Their daughter Zaima Rahman who studies at the International School Dhaka is fourteen years old. She is now studied in school of London. Zubaida Rahman is also the first cousin of Irene Khan, the former head of Amnesty International.